Developer Interface

This part of the documentation covers all the interfaces of Requests. For parts where Requests depends on external libraries, we document the most important right here and provide links to the canonical documentation.

Main Interface

All of Requests’ functionality can be accessed by these 7 methods. They all return an instance of the Response object.

requests.request(method, url, **kwargs)

Constructs and sends a Request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • method – method for the new Request object.
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • params – (optional) Dictionary or bytes to be sent in the query string for the Request.
  • data – (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • headers – (optional) Dictionary of HTTP Headers to send with the Request.
  • cookies – (optional) Dict or CookieJar object to send with the Request.
  • files – (optional) Dictionary of ‘name’: file-like-objects (or {‘name’: (‘filename’, fileobj)}) for multipart encoding upload.
  • auth – (optional) Auth tuple to enable Basic/Digest/Custom HTTP Auth.
  • timeout – (optional) Float describing the timeout of the request in seconds.
  • allow_redirects – (optional) Boolean. Set to True if POST/PUT/DELETE redirect following is allowed.
  • proxies – (optional) Dictionary mapping protocol to the URL of the proxy.
  • verify – (optional) if True, the SSL cert will be verified. A CA_BUNDLE path can also be provided.
  • stream – (optional) if False, the response content will be immediately downloaded.
  • cert – (optional) if String, path to ssl client cert file (.pem). If Tuple, (‘cert’, ‘key’) pair.

Usage:

>>> import requests
>>> req = requests.request('GET', 'http://httpbin.org/get')
<Response [200]>
requests.head(url, **kwargs)

Sends a HEAD request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
requests.get(url, **kwargs)

Sends a GET request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
requests.post(url, data=None, **kwargs)

Sends a POST request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • data – (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
requests.put(url, data=None, **kwargs)

Sends a PUT request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • data – (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
requests.patch(url, data=None, **kwargs)

Sends a PATCH request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • data – (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
requests.delete(url, **kwargs)

Sends a DELETE request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.

Lower-Level Classes

class requests.Request(method=None, url=None, headers=None, files=None, data=None, params=None, auth=None, cookies=None, hooks=None)

A user-created Request object.

Used to prepare a PreparedRequest, which is sent to the server.

Parameters:
  • method – HTTP method to use.
  • url – URL to send.
  • headers – dictionary of headers to send.
  • files – dictionary of {filename: fileobject} files to multipart upload.
  • data – the body to attach the request. If a dictionary is provided, form-encoding will take place.
  • params – dictionary of URL parameters to append to the URL.
  • auth – Auth handler or (user, pass) tuple.
  • cookies – dictionary or CookieJar of cookies to attach to this request.
  • hooks – dictionary of callback hooks, for internal usage.

Usage:

>>> import requests
>>> req = requests.Request('GET', 'http://httpbin.org/get')
>>> req.prepare()
<PreparedRequest [GET]>
deregister_hook(event, hook)

Deregister a previously registered hook. Returns True if the hook existed, False if not.

prepare()

Constructs a PreparedRequest for transmission and returns it.

register_hook(event, hook)

Properly register a hook.

class requests.Response

The Response object, which contains a server’s response to an HTTP request.

apparent_encoding

The apparent encoding, provided by the chardet library

close()

Closes the underlying file descriptor and releases the connection back to the pool.

Note: Should not normally need to be called explicitly.

content

Content of the response, in bytes.

cookies = None

A CookieJar of Cookies the server sent back.

elapsed = None

The amount of time elapsed between sending the request and the arrival of the response (as a timedelta)

encoding = None

Encoding to decode with when accessing r.text.

headers = None

Case-insensitive Dictionary of Response Headers. For example, headers['content-encoding'] will return the value of a 'Content-Encoding' response header.

history = None

A list of Response objects from the history of the Request. Any redirect responses will end up here. The list is sorted from the oldest to the most recent request.

is_redirect

True if this Response is a well-formed HTTP redirect that could have been processed automatically (by Session.resolve_redirects()).

iter_content(chunk_size=1, decode_unicode=False)

Iterates over the response data. When stream=True is set on the request, this avoids reading the content at once into memory for large responses. The chunk size is the number of bytes it should read into memory. This is not necessarily the length of each item returned as decoding can take place.

iter_lines(chunk_size=512, decode_unicode=None)

Iterates over the response data, one line at a time. When stream=True is set on the request, this avoids reading the content at once into memory for large responses.

json(**kwargs)

Returns the json-encoded content of a response, if any.

Parameters:**kwargs – Optional arguments that json.loads takes.

Returns the parsed header links of the response, if any.

raise_for_status()

Raises stored HTTPError, if one occurred.

raw = None

File-like object representation of response (for advanced usage). Use of raw requires that stream=True be set on the request.

reason = None

Textual reason of responded HTTP Status, e.g. “Not Found” or “OK”.

status_code = None

Integer Code of responded HTTP Status, e.g. 404 or 200.

text

Content of the response, in unicode.

If Response.encoding is None, encoding will be guessed using chardet.

The encoding of the response content is determined based solely on HTTP headers, following RFC 2616 to the letter. If you can take advantage of non-HTTP knowledge to make a better guess at the encoding, you should set r.encoding appropriately before accessing this property.

url = None

Final URL location of Response.

Request Sessions

class requests.Session

A Requests session.

Provides cookie persistence, connection-pooling, and configuration.

Basic Usage:

>>> import requests
>>> s = requests.Session()
>>> s.get('http://httpbin.org/get')
200
auth = None

Default Authentication tuple or object to attach to Request.

cert = None

SSL certificate default.

close()

Closes all adapters and as such the session

cookies = None

A CookieJar containing all currently outstanding cookies set on this session. By default it is a RequestsCookieJar, but may be any other cookielib.CookieJar compatible object.

delete(url, **kwargs)

Sends a DELETE request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
get(url, **kwargs)

Sends a GET request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
get_adapter(url)

Returns the appropriate connnection adapter for the given URL.

head(url, **kwargs)

Sends a HEAD request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
headers = None

A case-insensitive dictionary of headers to be sent on each Request sent from this Session.

hooks = None

Event-handling hooks.

max_redirects = None

Maximum number of redirects allowed. If the request exceeds this limit, a TooManyRedirects exception is raised.

mount(prefix, adapter)

Registers a connection adapter to a prefix.

Adapters are sorted in descending order by key length.

options(url, **kwargs)

Sends a OPTIONS request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
params = None

Dictionary of querystring data to attach to each Request. The dictionary values may be lists for representing multivalued query parameters.

patch(url, data=None, **kwargs)

Sends a PATCH request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • data – (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
post(url, data=None, **kwargs)

Sends a POST request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • data – (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
prepare_request(request)

Constructs a PreparedRequest for transmission and returns it. The PreparedRequest has settings merged from the Request instance and those of the Session.

Parameters:requestRequest instance to prepare with this session’s settings.
proxies = None

Dictionary mapping protocol to the URL of the proxy (e.g. {‘http’: ‘foo.bar:3128’}) to be used on each Request.

put(url, data=None, **kwargs)

Sends a PUT request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • data – (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
rebuild_auth(prepared_request, response)

When being redirected we may want to strip authentication from the request to avoid leaking credentials. This method intelligently removes and reapplies authentication where possible to avoid credential loss.

rebuild_proxies(prepared_request, proxies)

This method re-evaluates the proxy configuration by considering the environment variables. If we are redirected to a URL covered by NO_PROXY, we strip the proxy configuration. Otherwise, we set missing proxy keys for this URL (in case they were stripped by a previous redirect).

This method also replaces the Proxy-Authorization header where necessary.

request(method, url, params=None, data=None, headers=None, cookies=None, files=None, auth=None, timeout=None, allow_redirects=True, proxies=None, hooks=None, stream=None, verify=None, cert=None)

Constructs a Request, prepares it and sends it. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • method – method for the new Request object.
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • params – (optional) Dictionary or bytes to be sent in the query string for the Request.
  • data – (optional) Dictionary or bytes to send in the body of the Request.
  • headers – (optional) Dictionary of HTTP Headers to send with the Request.
  • cookies – (optional) Dict or CookieJar object to send with the Request.
  • files – (optional) Dictionary of ‘filename’: file-like-objects for multipart encoding upload.
  • auth – (optional) Auth tuple or callable to enable Basic/Digest/Custom HTTP Auth.
  • timeout – (optional) Float describing the timeout of the request in seconds.
  • allow_redirects – (optional) Boolean. Set to True by default.
  • proxies – (optional) Dictionary mapping protocol to the URL of the proxy.
  • stream – (optional) whether to immediately download the response content. Defaults to False.
  • verify – (optional) if True, the SSL cert will be verified. A CA_BUNDLE path can also be provided.
  • cert – (optional) if String, path to ssl client cert file (.pem). If Tuple, (‘cert’, ‘key’) pair.
resolve_redirects(resp, req, stream=False, timeout=None, verify=True, cert=None, proxies=None)

Receives a Response. Returns a generator of Responses.

send(request, **kwargs)

Send a given PreparedRequest.

stream = None

Stream response content default.

trust_env = None

Should we trust the environment?

verify = None

SSL Verification default.

class requests.adapters.HTTPAdapter(pool_connections=10, pool_maxsize=10, max_retries=0, pool_block=False)

The built-in HTTP Adapter for urllib3.

Provides a general-case interface for Requests sessions to contact HTTP and HTTPS urls by implementing the Transport Adapter interface. This class will usually be created by the Session class under the covers.

Parameters:
  • pool_connections – The number of urllib3 connection pools to cache.
  • pool_maxsize – The maximum number of connections to save in the pool.
  • max_retries (int) – The maximum number of retries each connection should attempt. Note, this applies only to failed connections and timeouts, never to requests where the server returns a response.
  • pool_block – Whether the connection pool should block for connections.

Usage:

>>> import requests
>>> s = requests.Session()
>>> a = requests.adapters.HTTPAdapter(max_retries=3)
>>> s.mount('http://', a)
add_headers(request, **kwargs)

Add any headers needed by the connection. As of v2.0 this does nothing by default, but is left for overriding by users that subclass the HTTPAdapter.

This should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the HTTPAdapter.

Parameters:
  • request – The PreparedRequest to add headers to.
  • kwargs – The keyword arguments from the call to send().
build_response(req, resp)

Builds a Response object from a urllib3 response. This should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the HTTPAdapter

Parameters:
  • req – The PreparedRequest used to generate the response.
  • resp – The urllib3 response object.
cert_verify(conn, url, verify, cert)

Verify a SSL certificate. This method should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the HTTPAdapter.

Parameters:
  • conn – The urllib3 connection object associated with the cert.
  • url – The requested URL.
  • verify – Whether we should actually verify the certificate.
  • cert – The SSL certificate to verify.
close()

Disposes of any internal state.

Currently, this just closes the PoolManager, which closes pooled connections.

get_connection(url, proxies=None)

Returns a urllib3 connection for the given URL. This should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the HTTPAdapter.

Parameters:
  • url – The URL to connect to.
  • proxies – (optional) A Requests-style dictionary of proxies used on this request.
init_poolmanager(connections, maxsize, block=False)

Initializes a urllib3 PoolManager. This method should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the HTTPAdapter.

Parameters:
  • connections – The number of urllib3 connection pools to cache.
  • maxsize – The maximum number of connections to save in the pool.
  • block – Block when no free connections are available.
proxy_headers(proxy)

Returns a dictionary of the headers to add to any request sent through a proxy. This works with urllib3 magic to ensure that they are correctly sent to the proxy, rather than in a tunnelled request if CONNECT is being used.

This should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the HTTPAdapter.

Parameters:
  • proxies – The url of the proxy being used for this request.
  • kwargs – Optional additional keyword arguments.
request_url(request, proxies)

Obtain the url to use when making the final request.

If the message is being sent through a HTTP proxy, the full URL has to be used. Otherwise, we should only use the path portion of the URL.

This should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the HTTPAdapter.

Parameters:
  • request – The PreparedRequest being sent.
  • proxies – A dictionary of schemes to proxy URLs.
send(request, stream=False, timeout=None, verify=True, cert=None, proxies=None)

Sends PreparedRequest object. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • request – The PreparedRequest being sent.
  • stream – (optional) Whether to stream the request content.
  • timeout – (optional) The timeout on the request.
  • verify – (optional) Whether to verify SSL certificates.
  • cert – (optional) Any user-provided SSL certificate to be trusted.
  • proxies – (optional) The proxies dictionary to apply to the request.

Exceptions

exception requests.exceptions.RequestException(*args, **kwargs)

There was an ambiguous exception that occurred while handling your request.

exception requests.exceptions.ConnectionError(*args, **kwargs)

A Connection error occurred.

exception requests.exceptions.HTTPError(*args, **kwargs)

An HTTP error occurred.

exception requests.exceptions.URLRequired(*args, **kwargs)

A valid URL is required to make a request.

exception requests.exceptions.TooManyRedirects(*args, **kwargs)

Too many redirects.

Status Code Lookup

requests.codes()

Dictionary lookup object.

>>> requests.codes['temporary_redirect']
307

>>> requests.codes.teapot
418

>>> requests.codes['\o/']
200

Cookies

requests.utils.dict_from_cookiejar(cj)

Returns a key/value dictionary from a CookieJar.

Parameters:cj – CookieJar object to extract cookies from.
requests.utils.cookiejar_from_dict(cookie_dict, cookiejar=None, overwrite=True)

Returns a CookieJar from a key/value dictionary.

Parameters:
  • cookie_dict – Dict of key/values to insert into CookieJar.
  • cookiejar – (optional) A cookiejar to add the cookies to.
  • overwrite – (optional) If False, will not replace cookies already in the jar with new ones.
requests.utils.add_dict_to_cookiejar(cj, cookie_dict)

Returns a CookieJar from a key/value dictionary.

Parameters:
  • cj – CookieJar to insert cookies into.
  • cookie_dict – Dict of key/values to insert into CookieJar.

Encodings

requests.utils.get_encodings_from_content(content)

Returns encodings from given content string.

Parameters:content – bytestring to extract encodings from.
requests.utils.get_encoding_from_headers(headers)

Returns encodings from given HTTP Header Dict.

Parameters:headers – dictionary to extract encoding from.
requests.utils.get_unicode_from_response(r)

Returns the requested content back in unicode.

Parameters:r – Response object to get unicode content from.

Tried:

  1. charset from content-type
  2. every encodings from <meta ... charset=XXX>
  3. fall back and replace all unicode characters

Classes

class requests.Response

The Response object, which contains a server’s response to an HTTP request.

apparent_encoding

The apparent encoding, provided by the chardet library

close()

Closes the underlying file descriptor and releases the connection back to the pool.

Note: Should not normally need to be called explicitly.

content

Content of the response, in bytes.

cookies = None

A CookieJar of Cookies the server sent back.

elapsed = None

The amount of time elapsed between sending the request and the arrival of the response (as a timedelta)

encoding = None

Encoding to decode with when accessing r.text.

headers = None

Case-insensitive Dictionary of Response Headers. For example, headers['content-encoding'] will return the value of a 'Content-Encoding' response header.

history = None

A list of Response objects from the history of the Request. Any redirect responses will end up here. The list is sorted from the oldest to the most recent request.

is_redirect

True if this Response is a well-formed HTTP redirect that could have been processed automatically (by Session.resolve_redirects()).

iter_content(chunk_size=1, decode_unicode=False)

Iterates over the response data. When stream=True is set on the request, this avoids reading the content at once into memory for large responses. The chunk size is the number of bytes it should read into memory. This is not necessarily the length of each item returned as decoding can take place.

iter_lines(chunk_size=512, decode_unicode=None)

Iterates over the response data, one line at a time. When stream=True is set on the request, this avoids reading the content at once into memory for large responses.

json(**kwargs)

Returns the json-encoded content of a response, if any.

Parameters:**kwargs – Optional arguments that json.loads takes.
links

Returns the parsed header links of the response, if any.

raise_for_status()

Raises stored HTTPError, if one occurred.

raw = None

File-like object representation of response (for advanced usage). Use of raw requires that stream=True be set on the request.

reason = None

Textual reason of responded HTTP Status, e.g. “Not Found” or “OK”.

status_code = None

Integer Code of responded HTTP Status, e.g. 404 or 200.

text

Content of the response, in unicode.

If Response.encoding is None, encoding will be guessed using chardet.

The encoding of the response content is determined based solely on HTTP headers, following RFC 2616 to the letter. If you can take advantage of non-HTTP knowledge to make a better guess at the encoding, you should set r.encoding appropriately before accessing this property.

url = None

Final URL location of Response.

class requests.Request(method=None, url=None, headers=None, files=None, data=None, params=None, auth=None, cookies=None, hooks=None)

A user-created Request object.

Used to prepare a PreparedRequest, which is sent to the server.

Parameters:
  • method – HTTP method to use.
  • url – URL to send.
  • headers – dictionary of headers to send.
  • files – dictionary of {filename: fileobject} files to multipart upload.
  • data – the body to attach the request. If a dictionary is provided, form-encoding will take place.
  • params – dictionary of URL parameters to append to the URL.
  • auth – Auth handler or (user, pass) tuple.
  • cookies – dictionary or CookieJar of cookies to attach to this request.
  • hooks – dictionary of callback hooks, for internal usage.

Usage:

>>> import requests
>>> req = requests.Request('GET', 'http://httpbin.org/get')
>>> req.prepare()
<PreparedRequest [GET]>
deregister_hook(event, hook)

Deregister a previously registered hook. Returns True if the hook existed, False if not.

prepare()

Constructs a PreparedRequest for transmission and returns it.

register_hook(event, hook)

Properly register a hook.

class requests.PreparedRequest

The fully mutable PreparedRequest object, containing the exact bytes that will be sent to the server.

Generated from either a Request object or manually.

Usage:

>>> import requests
>>> req = requests.Request('GET', 'http://httpbin.org/get')
>>> r = req.prepare()
<PreparedRequest [GET]>

>>> s = requests.Session()
>>> s.send(r)
<Response [200]>
body = None

request body to send to the server.

deregister_hook(event, hook)

Deregister a previously registered hook. Returns True if the hook existed, False if not.

headers = None

dictionary of HTTP headers.

hooks = None

dictionary of callback hooks, for internal usage.

method = None

HTTP verb to send to the server.

path_url

Build the path URL to use.

prepare(method=None, url=None, headers=None, files=None, data=None, params=None, auth=None, cookies=None, hooks=None)

Prepares the entire request with the given parameters.

prepare_auth(auth, url='')

Prepares the given HTTP auth data.

prepare_body(data, files)

Prepares the given HTTP body data.

prepare_cookies(cookies)

Prepares the given HTTP cookie data.

prepare_headers(headers)

Prepares the given HTTP headers.

prepare_hooks(hooks)

Prepares the given hooks.

prepare_method(method)

Prepares the given HTTP method.

prepare_url(url, params)

Prepares the given HTTP URL.

register_hook(event, hook)

Properly register a hook.

url = None

HTTP URL to send the request to.

class requests.Session

A Requests session.

Provides cookie persistence, connection-pooling, and configuration.

Basic Usage:

>>> import requests
>>> s = requests.Session()
>>> s.get('http://httpbin.org/get')
200
auth = None

Default Authentication tuple or object to attach to Request.

cert = None

SSL certificate default.

close()

Closes all adapters and as such the session

cookies = None

A CookieJar containing all currently outstanding cookies set on this session. By default it is a RequestsCookieJar, but may be any other cookielib.CookieJar compatible object.

delete(url, **kwargs)

Sends a DELETE request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
get(url, **kwargs)

Sends a GET request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
get_adapter(url)

Returns the appropriate connnection adapter for the given URL.

head(url, **kwargs)

Sends a HEAD request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
headers = None

A case-insensitive dictionary of headers to be sent on each Request sent from this Session.

hooks = None

Event-handling hooks.

max_redirects = None

Maximum number of redirects allowed. If the request exceeds this limit, a TooManyRedirects exception is raised.

mount(prefix, adapter)

Registers a connection adapter to a prefix.

Adapters are sorted in descending order by key length.

options(url, **kwargs)

Sends a OPTIONS request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
params = None

Dictionary of querystring data to attach to each Request. The dictionary values may be lists for representing multivalued query parameters.

patch(url, data=None, **kwargs)

Sends a PATCH request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • data – (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
post(url, data=None, **kwargs)

Sends a POST request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • data – (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
prepare_request(request)

Constructs a PreparedRequest for transmission and returns it. The PreparedRequest has settings merged from the Request instance and those of the Session.

Parameters:requestRequest instance to prepare with this session’s settings.
proxies = None

Dictionary mapping protocol to the URL of the proxy (e.g. {‘http’: ‘foo.bar:3128’}) to be used on each Request.

put(url, data=None, **kwargs)

Sends a PUT request. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • data – (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the Request.
  • **kwargs – Optional arguments that request takes.
rebuild_auth(prepared_request, response)

When being redirected we may want to strip authentication from the request to avoid leaking credentials. This method intelligently removes and reapplies authentication where possible to avoid credential loss.

rebuild_proxies(prepared_request, proxies)

This method re-evaluates the proxy configuration by considering the environment variables. If we are redirected to a URL covered by NO_PROXY, we strip the proxy configuration. Otherwise, we set missing proxy keys for this URL (in case they were stripped by a previous redirect).

This method also replaces the Proxy-Authorization header where necessary.

request(method, url, params=None, data=None, headers=None, cookies=None, files=None, auth=None, timeout=None, allow_redirects=True, proxies=None, hooks=None, stream=None, verify=None, cert=None)

Constructs a Request, prepares it and sends it. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • method – method for the new Request object.
  • url – URL for the new Request object.
  • params – (optional) Dictionary or bytes to be sent in the query string for the Request.
  • data – (optional) Dictionary or bytes to send in the body of the Request.
  • headers – (optional) Dictionary of HTTP Headers to send with the Request.
  • cookies – (optional) Dict or CookieJar object to send with the Request.
  • files – (optional) Dictionary of ‘filename’: file-like-objects for multipart encoding upload.
  • auth – (optional) Auth tuple or callable to enable Basic/Digest/Custom HTTP Auth.
  • timeout – (optional) Float describing the timeout of the request in seconds.
  • allow_redirects – (optional) Boolean. Set to True by default.
  • proxies – (optional) Dictionary mapping protocol to the URL of the proxy.
  • stream – (optional) whether to immediately download the response content. Defaults to False.
  • verify – (optional) if True, the SSL cert will be verified. A CA_BUNDLE path can also be provided.
  • cert – (optional) if String, path to ssl client cert file (.pem). If Tuple, (‘cert’, ‘key’) pair.
resolve_redirects(resp, req, stream=False, timeout=None, verify=True, cert=None, proxies=None)

Receives a Response. Returns a generator of Responses.

send(request, **kwargs)

Send a given PreparedRequest.

stream = None

Stream response content default.

trust_env = None

Should we trust the environment?

verify = None

SSL Verification default.

class requests.adapters.HTTPAdapter(pool_connections=10, pool_maxsize=10, max_retries=0, pool_block=False)

The built-in HTTP Adapter for urllib3.

Provides a general-case interface for Requests sessions to contact HTTP and HTTPS urls by implementing the Transport Adapter interface. This class will usually be created by the Session class under the covers.

Parameters:
  • pool_connections – The number of urllib3 connection pools to cache.
  • pool_maxsize – The maximum number of connections to save in the pool.
  • max_retries (int) – The maximum number of retries each connection should attempt. Note, this applies only to failed connections and timeouts, never to requests where the server returns a response.
  • pool_block – Whether the connection pool should block for connections.

Usage:

>>> import requests
>>> s = requests.Session()
>>> a = requests.adapters.HTTPAdapter(max_retries=3)
>>> s.mount('http://', a)
add_headers(request, **kwargs)

Add any headers needed by the connection. As of v2.0 this does nothing by default, but is left for overriding by users that subclass the HTTPAdapter.

This should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the HTTPAdapter.

Parameters:
  • request – The PreparedRequest to add headers to.
  • kwargs – The keyword arguments from the call to send().
build_response(req, resp)

Builds a Response object from a urllib3 response. This should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the HTTPAdapter

Parameters:
  • req – The PreparedRequest used to generate the response.
  • resp – The urllib3 response object.
cert_verify(conn, url, verify, cert)

Verify a SSL certificate. This method should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the HTTPAdapter.

Parameters:
  • conn – The urllib3 connection object associated with the cert.
  • url – The requested URL.
  • verify – Whether we should actually verify the certificate.
  • cert – The SSL certificate to verify.
close()

Disposes of any internal state.

Currently, this just closes the PoolManager, which closes pooled connections.

get_connection(url, proxies=None)

Returns a urllib3 connection for the given URL. This should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the HTTPAdapter.

Parameters:
  • url – The URL to connect to.
  • proxies – (optional) A Requests-style dictionary of proxies used on this request.
init_poolmanager(connections, maxsize, block=False)

Initializes a urllib3 PoolManager. This method should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the HTTPAdapter.

Parameters:
  • connections – The number of urllib3 connection pools to cache.
  • maxsize – The maximum number of connections to save in the pool.
  • block – Block when no free connections are available.
proxy_headers(proxy)

Returns a dictionary of the headers to add to any request sent through a proxy. This works with urllib3 magic to ensure that they are correctly sent to the proxy, rather than in a tunnelled request if CONNECT is being used.

This should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the HTTPAdapter.

Parameters:
  • proxies – The url of the proxy being used for this request.
  • kwargs – Optional additional keyword arguments.
request_url(request, proxies)

Obtain the url to use when making the final request.

If the message is being sent through a HTTP proxy, the full URL has to be used. Otherwise, we should only use the path portion of the URL.

This should not be called from user code, and is only exposed for use when subclassing the HTTPAdapter.

Parameters:
  • request – The PreparedRequest being sent.
  • proxies – A dictionary of schemes to proxy URLs.
send(request, stream=False, timeout=None, verify=True, cert=None, proxies=None)

Sends PreparedRequest object. Returns Response object.

Parameters:
  • request – The PreparedRequest being sent.
  • stream – (optional) Whether to stream the request content.
  • timeout – (optional) The timeout on the request.
  • verify – (optional) Whether to verify SSL certificates.
  • cert – (optional) Any user-provided SSL certificate to be trusted.
  • proxies – (optional) The proxies dictionary to apply to the request.

Migrating to 1.x

This section details the main differences between 0.x and 1.x and is meant to ease the pain of upgrading.

API Changes

  • Response.json is now a callable and not a property of a response.

    import requests
    r = requests.get('https://github.com/timeline.json')
    r.json()   # This *call* raises an exception if JSON decoding fails
    
  • The Session API has changed. Sessions objects no longer take parameters. Session is also now capitalized, but it can still be instantiated with a lowercase session for backwards compatibility.

    s = requests.Session()    # formerly, session took parameters
    s.auth = auth
    s.headers.update(headers)
    r = s.get('http://httpbin.org/headers')
    
  • All request hooks have been removed except ‘response’.

  • Authentication helpers have been broken out into separate modules. See requests-oauthlib and requests-kerberos.

  • The parameter for streaming requests was changed from prefetch to stream and the logic was inverted. In addition, stream is now required for raw response reading.

    # in 0.x, passing prefetch=False would accomplish the same thing
    r = requests.get('https://github.com/timeline.json', stream=True)
    for chunk in r.iter_content(8192):
        ...
    
  • The config parameter to the requests method has been removed. Some of these options are now configured on a Session such as keep-alive and maximum number of redirects. The verbosity option should be handled by configuring logging.

    import requests
    import logging
    
    # these two lines enable debugging at httplib level (requests->urllib3->httplib)
    # you will see the REQUEST, including HEADERS and DATA, and RESPONSE with HEADERS but without DATA.
    # the only thing missing will be the response.body which is not logged.
    import httplib
    httplib.HTTPConnection.debuglevel = 1
    
    logging.basicConfig() # you need to initialize logging, otherwise you will not see anything from requests
    logging.getLogger().setLevel(logging.DEBUG)
    requests_log = logging.getLogger("requests.packages.urllib3")
    requests_log.setLevel(logging.DEBUG)
    requests_log.propagate = True
    
    requests.get('http://httpbin.org/headers')
    

Licensing

One key difference that has nothing to do with the API is a change in the license from the ISC license to the Apache 2.0 license. The Apache 2.0 license ensures that contributions to Requests are also covered by the Apache 2.0 license.

Migrating to 2.x

Compared with the 1.0 release, there were relatively few backwards incompatible changes, but there are still a few issues to be aware of with this major release.

For more details on the changes in this release including new APIs, links to the relevant GitHub issues and some of the bug fixes, read Cory’s blog on the subject.

API Changes

  • There were a couple changes to how Requests handles exceptions. RequestException is now a subclass of IOError rather than RuntimeError as that more accurately categorizes the type of error. In addition, an invalid URL escape sequence now raises a subclass of RequestException rather than a ValueError.

    requests.get('http://%zz/')   # raises requests.exceptions.InvalidURL
    

    Lastly, httplib.IncompleteRead exceptions caused by incorrect chunked encoding will now raise a Requests ChunkedEncodingError instead.

  • The proxy API has changed slightly. The scheme for a proxy URL is now required.

    proxies = {
      "http": "10.10.1.10:3128",    # use http://10.10.1.10:3128 instead
    }
    
    # In requests 1.x, this was legal, in requests 2.x,
    #  this raises requests.exceptions.MissingSchema
    requests.get("http://example.org", proxies=proxies)
    

Behavioral Changes

  • Keys in the headers dictionary are now native strings on all Python versions, i.e. bytestrings on Python 2 and unicode on Python 3. If the keys are not native strings (unicode on Python2 or bytestrings on Python 3) they will be converted to the native string type assuming UTF-8 encoding.

  • Timeouts behave slightly differently. On streaming requests, the timeout only applies to the connection attempt. On regular requests, the timeout is applied to the connection process and on to all attempts to read data from the underlying socket. It does not apply to the total download time for the request.

    tarball_url = 'https://github.com/kennethreitz/requests/tarball/master'
    
    # One second timeout for the connection attempt
    # Unlimited time to download the tarball
    r = requests.get(tarball_url, stream=True, timeout=1)
    
    # One second timeout for the connection attempt
    # Another full second timeout to download the tarball
    r = requests.get(tarball_url, timeout=1)
    

Requests is an elegant and simple HTTP library for Python, built for human beings. You are currently looking at the documentation of the development release.

Get Updates

Receive updates on new releases and upcoming projects.

Subscribe to Newsletter

Get Support

If your organization uses Requests, consider financial support:

Requests Pro

Table Of Contents

Related Topics

Fork me on GitHub