Source code for requests.sessions

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

"""
requests.session
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

This module provides a Session object to manage and persist settings across
requests (cookies, auth, proxies).
"""
import os
import platform
import time
from collections import Mapping
from datetime import timedelta

from .auth import _basic_auth_str
from .compat import cookielib, is_py3, OrderedDict, urljoin, urlparse
from .cookies import (
    cookiejar_from_dict, extract_cookies_to_jar, RequestsCookieJar, merge_cookies)
from .models import Request, PreparedRequest, DEFAULT_REDIRECT_LIMIT
from .hooks import default_hooks, dispatch_hook
from ._internal_utils import to_native_string
from .utils import to_key_val_list, default_headers
from .exceptions import (
    TooManyRedirects, InvalidSchema, ChunkedEncodingError, ContentDecodingError)

from .structures import CaseInsensitiveDict
from .adapters import HTTPAdapter

from .utils import (
    requote_uri, get_environ_proxies, get_netrc_auth, should_bypass_proxies,
    get_auth_from_url, rewind_body
)

from .status_codes import codes

# formerly defined here, reexposed here for backward compatibility
from .models import REDIRECT_STATI

# Preferred clock, based on which one is more accurate on a given system.
if platform.system() == 'Windows':
    try:  # Python 3.3+
        preferred_clock = time.perf_counter
    except AttributeError:  # Earlier than Python 3.
        preferred_clock = time.clock
else:
    preferred_clock = time.time


def merge_setting(request_setting, session_setting, dict_class=OrderedDict):
    """Determines appropriate setting for a given request, taking into account
    the explicit setting on that request, and the setting in the session. If a
    setting is a dictionary, they will be merged together using `dict_class`
    """

    if session_setting is None:
        return request_setting

    if request_setting is None:
        return session_setting

    # Bypass if not a dictionary (e.g. verify)
    if not (
            isinstance(session_setting, Mapping) and
            isinstance(request_setting, Mapping)
    ):
        return request_setting

    merged_setting = dict_class(to_key_val_list(session_setting))
    merged_setting.update(to_key_val_list(request_setting))

    # Remove keys that are set to None. Extract keys first to avoid altering
    # the dictionary during iteration.
    none_keys = [k for (k, v) in merged_setting.items() if v is None]
    for key in none_keys:
        del merged_setting[key]

    return merged_setting


def merge_hooks(request_hooks, session_hooks, dict_class=OrderedDict):
    """Properly merges both requests and session hooks.

    This is necessary because when request_hooks == {'response': []}, the
    merge breaks Session hooks entirely.
    """
    if session_hooks is None or session_hooks.get('response') == []:
        return request_hooks

    if request_hooks is None or request_hooks.get('response') == []:
        return session_hooks

    return merge_setting(request_hooks, session_hooks, dict_class)


class SessionRedirectMixin(object):

    def get_redirect_target(self, resp):
        """Receives a Response. Returns a redirect URI or ``None``"""
        # Due to the nature of how requests processes redirects this method will
        # be called at least once upon the original response and at least twice
        # on each subsequent redirect response (if any).
        # If a custom mixin is used to handle this logic, it may be advantageous
        # to cache the redirect location onto the response object as a private
        # attribute.
        if resp.is_redirect:
            location = resp.headers['location']
            # Currently the underlying http module on py3 decode headers
            # in latin1, but empirical evidence suggests that latin1 is very
            # rarely used with non-ASCII characters in HTTP headers.
            # It is more likely to get UTF8 header rather than latin1.
            # This causes incorrect handling of UTF8 encoded location headers.
            # To solve this, we re-encode the location in latin1.
            if is_py3:
                location = location.encode('latin1')
            return to_native_string(location, 'utf8')
        return None

    def resolve_redirects(self, resp, req, stream=False, timeout=None,
                          verify=True, cert=None, proxies=None, yield_requests=False, **adapter_kwargs):
        """Receives a Response. Returns a generator of Responses or Requests."""

        hist = []  # keep track of history

        url = self.get_redirect_target(resp)
        while url:
            prepared_request = req.copy()

            # Update history and keep track of redirects.
            # resp.history must ignore the original request in this loop
            hist.append(resp)
            resp.history = hist[1:]

            try:
                resp.content  # Consume socket so it can be released
            except (ChunkedEncodingError, ContentDecodingError, RuntimeError):
                resp.raw.read(decode_content=False)

            if len(resp.history) >= self.max_redirects:
                raise TooManyRedirects('Exceeded %s redirects.' % self.max_redirects, response=resp)

            # Release the connection back into the pool.
            resp.close()

            # Handle redirection without scheme (see: RFC 1808 Section 4)
            if url.startswith('//'):
                parsed_rurl = urlparse(resp.url)
                url = '%s:%s' % (to_native_string(parsed_rurl.scheme), url)

            # The scheme should be lower case...
            parsed = urlparse(url)
            url = parsed.geturl()

            # Facilitate relative 'location' headers, as allowed by RFC 7231.
            # (e.g. '/path/to/resource' instead of 'http://domain.tld/path/to/resource')
            # Compliant with RFC3986, we percent encode the url.
            if not parsed.netloc:
                url = urljoin(resp.url, requote_uri(url))
            else:
                url = requote_uri(url)

            prepared_request.url = to_native_string(url)

            self.rebuild_method(prepared_request, resp)

            # https://github.com/requests/requests/issues/1084
            if resp.status_code not in (codes.temporary_redirect, codes.permanent_redirect):
                # https://github.com/requests/requests/issues/3490
                purged_headers = ('Content-Length', 'Content-Type', 'Transfer-Encoding')
                for header in purged_headers:
                    prepared_request.headers.pop(header, None)
                prepared_request.body = None

            headers = prepared_request.headers
            try:
                del headers['Cookie']
            except KeyError:
                pass

            # Extract any cookies sent on the response to the cookiejar
            # in the new request. Because we've mutated our copied prepared
            # request, use the old one that we haven't yet touched.
            extract_cookies_to_jar(prepared_request._cookies, req, resp.raw)
            merge_cookies(prepared_request._cookies, self.cookies)
            prepared_request.prepare_cookies(prepared_request._cookies)

            # Rebuild auth and proxy information.
            proxies = self.rebuild_proxies(prepared_request, proxies)
            self.rebuild_auth(prepared_request, resp)

            # A failed tell() sets `_body_position` to `object()`. This non-None
            # value ensures `rewindable` will be True, allowing us to raise an
            # UnrewindableBodyError, instead of hanging the connection.
            rewindable = (
                prepared_request._body_position is not None and
                ('Content-Length' in headers or 'Transfer-Encoding' in headers)
            )

            # Attempt to rewind consumed file-like object.
            if rewindable:
                rewind_body(prepared_request)

            # Override the original request.
            req = prepared_request

            if yield_requests:
                yield req
            else:

                resp = self.send(
                    req,
                    stream=stream,
                    timeout=timeout,
                    verify=verify,
                    cert=cert,
                    proxies=proxies,
                    allow_redirects=False,
                    **adapter_kwargs
                )

                extract_cookies_to_jar(self.cookies, prepared_request, resp.raw)

                # extract redirect url, if any, for the next loop
                url = self.get_redirect_target(resp)
                yield resp

    def rebuild_auth(self, prepared_request, response):
        """When being redirected we may want to strip authentication from the
        request to avoid leaking credentials. This method intelligently removes
        and reapplies authentication where possible to avoid credential loss.
        """
        headers = prepared_request.headers
        url = prepared_request.url

        if 'Authorization' in headers:
            # If we get redirected to a new host, we should strip out any
            # authentication headers.
            original_parsed = urlparse(response.request.url)
            redirect_parsed = urlparse(url)

            if (original_parsed.hostname != redirect_parsed.hostname):
                del headers['Authorization']

        # .netrc might have more auth for us on our new host.
        new_auth = get_netrc_auth(url) if self.trust_env else None
        if new_auth is not None:
            prepared_request.prepare_auth(new_auth)

        return

    def rebuild_proxies(self, prepared_request, proxies):
        """This method re-evaluates the proxy configuration by considering the
        environment variables. If we are redirected to a URL covered by
        NO_PROXY, we strip the proxy configuration. Otherwise, we set missing
        proxy keys for this URL (in case they were stripped by a previous
        redirect).

        This method also replaces the Proxy-Authorization header where
        necessary.

        :rtype: dict
        """
        proxies = proxies if proxies is not None else {}
        headers = prepared_request.headers
        url = prepared_request.url
        scheme = urlparse(url).scheme
        new_proxies = proxies.copy()
        no_proxy = proxies.get('no_proxy')

        bypass_proxy = should_bypass_proxies(url, no_proxy=no_proxy)
        if self.trust_env and not bypass_proxy:
            environ_proxies = get_environ_proxies(url, no_proxy=no_proxy)

            proxy = environ_proxies.get(scheme, environ_proxies.get('all'))

            if proxy:
                new_proxies.setdefault(scheme, proxy)

        if 'Proxy-Authorization' in headers:
            del headers['Proxy-Authorization']

        try:
            username, password = get_auth_from_url(new_proxies[scheme])
        except KeyError:
            username, password = None, None

        if username and password:
            headers['Proxy-Authorization'] = _basic_auth_str(username, password)

        return new_proxies

    def rebuild_method(self, prepared_request, response):
        """When being redirected we may want to change the method of the request
        based on certain specs or browser behavior.
        """
        method = prepared_request.method

        # http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7231#section-6.4.4
        if response.status_code == codes.see_other and method != 'HEAD':
            method = 'GET'

        # Do what the browsers do, despite standards...
        # First, turn 302s into GETs.
        if response.status_code == codes.found and method != 'HEAD':
            method = 'GET'

        # Second, if a POST is responded to with a 301, turn it into a GET.
        # This bizarre behaviour is explained in Issue 1704.
        if response.status_code == codes.moved and method == 'POST':
            method = 'GET'

        prepared_request.method = method


[docs]class Session(SessionRedirectMixin): """A Requests session. Provides cookie persistence, connection-pooling, and configuration. Basic Usage:: >>> import requests >>> s = requests.Session() >>> s.get('http://httpbin.org/get') <Response [200]> Or as a context manager:: >>> with requests.Session() as s: >>> s.get('http://httpbin.org/get') <Response [200]> """ __attrs__ = [ 'headers', 'cookies', 'auth', 'proxies', 'hooks', 'params', 'verify', 'cert', 'prefetch', 'adapters', 'stream', 'trust_env', 'max_redirects', ] def __init__(self): #: A case-insensitive dictionary of headers to be sent on each #: :class:`Request <Request>` sent from this #: :class:`Session <Session>`. self.headers = default_headers() #: Default Authentication tuple or object to attach to #: :class:`Request <Request>`. self.auth = None #: Dictionary mapping protocol or protocol and host to the URL of the proxy #: (e.g. {'http': 'foo.bar:3128', 'http://host.name': 'foo.bar:4012'}) to #: be used on each :class:`Request <Request>`. self.proxies = {} #: Event-handling hooks. self.hooks = default_hooks() #: Dictionary of querystring data to attach to each #: :class:`Request <Request>`. The dictionary values may be lists for #: representing multivalued query parameters. self.params = {} #: Stream response content default. self.stream = False #: SSL Verification default. self.verify = True #: SSL client certificate default, if String, path to ssl client #: cert file (.pem). If Tuple, ('cert', 'key') pair. self.cert = None #: Maximum number of redirects allowed. If the request exceeds this #: limit, a :class:`TooManyRedirects` exception is raised. #: This defaults to requests.models.DEFAULT_REDIRECT_LIMIT, which is #: 30. self.max_redirects = DEFAULT_REDIRECT_LIMIT #: Trust environment settings for proxy configuration, default #: authentication and similar. self.trust_env = True #: A CookieJar containing all currently outstanding cookies set on this #: session. By default it is a #: :class:`RequestsCookieJar <requests.cookies.RequestsCookieJar>`, but #: may be any other ``cookielib.CookieJar`` compatible object. self.cookies = cookiejar_from_dict({}) # Default connection adapters. self.adapters = OrderedDict() self.mount('https://', HTTPAdapter()) self.mount('http://', HTTPAdapter()) def __enter__(self): return self def __exit__(self, *args): self.close()
[docs] def prepare_request(self, request): """Constructs a :class:`PreparedRequest <PreparedRequest>` for transmission and returns it. The :class:`PreparedRequest` has settings merged from the :class:`Request <Request>` instance and those of the :class:`Session`. :param request: :class:`Request` instance to prepare with this session's settings. :rtype: requests.PreparedRequest """ cookies = request.cookies or {} # Bootstrap CookieJar. if not isinstance(cookies, cookielib.CookieJar): cookies = cookiejar_from_dict(cookies) # Merge with session cookies merged_cookies = merge_cookies( merge_cookies(RequestsCookieJar(), self.cookies), cookies) # Set environment's basic authentication if not explicitly set. auth = request.auth if self.trust_env and not auth and not self.auth: auth = get_netrc_auth(request.url) p = PreparedRequest() p.prepare( method=request.method.upper(), url=request.url, files=request.files, data=request.data, json=request.json, headers=merge_setting(request.headers, self.headers, dict_class=CaseInsensitiveDict), params=merge_setting(request.params, self.params), auth=merge_setting(auth, self.auth), cookies=merged_cookies, hooks=merge_hooks(request.hooks, self.hooks), ) return p
[docs] def request(self, method, url, params=None, data=None, headers=None, cookies=None, files=None, auth=None, timeout=None, allow_redirects=True, proxies=None, hooks=None, stream=None, verify=None, cert=None, json=None): """Constructs a :class:`Request <Request>`, prepares it and sends it. Returns :class:`Response <Response>` object. :param method: method for the new :class:`Request` object. :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object. :param params: (optional) Dictionary or bytes to be sent in the query string for the :class:`Request`. :param data: (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the :class:`Request`. :param json: (optional) json to send in the body of the :class:`Request`. :param headers: (optional) Dictionary of HTTP Headers to send with the :class:`Request`. :param cookies: (optional) Dict or CookieJar object to send with the :class:`Request`. :param files: (optional) Dictionary of ``'filename': file-like-objects`` for multipart encoding upload. :param auth: (optional) Auth tuple or callable to enable Basic/Digest/Custom HTTP Auth. :param timeout: (optional) How long to wait for the server to send data before giving up, as a float, or a :ref:`(connect timeout, read timeout) <timeouts>` tuple. :type timeout: float or tuple :param allow_redirects: (optional) Set to True by default. :type allow_redirects: bool :param proxies: (optional) Dictionary mapping protocol or protocol and hostname to the URL of the proxy. :param stream: (optional) whether to immediately download the response content. Defaults to ``False``. :param verify: (optional) Either a boolean, in which case it controls whether we verify the server's TLS certificate, or a string, in which case it must be a path to a CA bundle to use. Defaults to ``True``. :param cert: (optional) if String, path to ssl client cert file (.pem). If Tuple, ('cert', 'key') pair. :rtype: requests.Response """ # Create the Request. req = Request( method=method.upper(), url=url, headers=headers, files=files, data=data or {}, json=json, params=params or {}, auth=auth, cookies=cookies, hooks=hooks, ) prep = self.prepare_request(req) proxies = proxies or {} settings = self.merge_environment_settings( prep.url, proxies, stream, verify, cert ) # Send the request. send_kwargs = { 'timeout': timeout, 'allow_redirects': allow_redirects, } send_kwargs.update(settings) resp = self.send(prep, **send_kwargs) return resp
[docs] def get(self, url, **kwargs): r"""Sends a GET request. Returns :class:`Response` object. :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object. :param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes. :rtype: requests.Response """ kwargs.setdefault('allow_redirects', True) return self.request('GET', url, **kwargs)
[docs] def options(self, url, **kwargs): r"""Sends a OPTIONS request. Returns :class:`Response` object. :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object. :param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes. :rtype: requests.Response """ kwargs.setdefault('allow_redirects', True) return self.request('OPTIONS', url, **kwargs)
[docs] def head(self, url, **kwargs): r"""Sends a HEAD request. Returns :class:`Response` object. :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object. :param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes. :rtype: requests.Response """ kwargs.setdefault('allow_redirects', False) return self.request('HEAD', url, **kwargs)
[docs] def post(self, url, data=None, json=None, **kwargs): r"""Sends a POST request. Returns :class:`Response` object. :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object. :param data: (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the :class:`Request`. :param json: (optional) json to send in the body of the :class:`Request`. :param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes. :rtype: requests.Response """ return self.request('POST', url, data=data, json=json, **kwargs)
[docs] def put(self, url, data=None, **kwargs): r"""Sends a PUT request. Returns :class:`Response` object. :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object. :param data: (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the :class:`Request`. :param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes. :rtype: requests.Response """ return self.request('PUT', url, data=data, **kwargs)
[docs] def patch(self, url, data=None, **kwargs): r"""Sends a PATCH request. Returns :class:`Response` object. :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object. :param data: (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the :class:`Request`. :param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes. :rtype: requests.Response """ return self.request('PATCH', url, data=data, **kwargs)
[docs] def delete(self, url, **kwargs): r"""Sends a DELETE request. Returns :class:`Response` object. :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object. :param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes. :rtype: requests.Response """ return self.request('DELETE', url, **kwargs)
[docs] def send(self, request, **kwargs): """Send a given PreparedRequest. :rtype: requests.Response """ # Set defaults that the hooks can utilize to ensure they always have # the correct parameters to reproduce the previous request. kwargs.setdefault('stream', self.stream) kwargs.setdefault('verify', self.verify) kwargs.setdefault('cert', self.cert) kwargs.setdefault('proxies', self.proxies) # It's possible that users might accidentally send a Request object. # Guard against that specific failure case. if isinstance(request, Request): raise ValueError('You can only send PreparedRequests.') # Set up variables needed for resolve_redirects and dispatching of hooks allow_redirects = kwargs.pop('allow_redirects', True) stream = kwargs.get('stream') hooks = request.hooks # Get the appropriate adapter to use adapter = self.get_adapter(url=request.url) # Start time (approximately) of the request start = preferred_clock() # Send the request r = adapter.send(request, **kwargs) # Total elapsed time of the request (approximately) elapsed = preferred_clock() - start r.elapsed = timedelta(seconds=elapsed) # Response manipulation hooks r = dispatch_hook('response', hooks, r, **kwargs) # Persist cookies if r.history: # If the hooks create history then we want those cookies too for resp in r.history: extract_cookies_to_jar(self.cookies, resp.request, resp.raw) extract_cookies_to_jar(self.cookies, request, r.raw) # Redirect resolving generator. gen = self.resolve_redirects(r, request, **kwargs) # Resolve redirects if allowed. history = [resp for resp in gen] if allow_redirects else [] # Shuffle things around if there's history. if history: # Insert the first (original) request at the start history.insert(0, r) # Get the last request made r = history.pop() r.history = history # If redirects aren't being followed, store the response on the Request for Response.next(). if not allow_redirects: try: r._next = next(self.resolve_redirects(r, request, yield_requests=True, **kwargs)) except StopIteration: pass if not stream: r.content return r
[docs] def merge_environment_settings(self, url, proxies, stream, verify, cert): """ Check the environment and merge it with some settings. :rtype: dict """ # Gather clues from the surrounding environment. if self.trust_env: # Set environment's proxies. no_proxy = proxies.get('no_proxy') if proxies is not None else None env_proxies = get_environ_proxies(url, no_proxy=no_proxy) for (k, v) in env_proxies.items(): proxies.setdefault(k, v) # Look for requests environment configuration and be compatible # with cURL. if verify is True or verify is None: verify = (os.environ.get('REQUESTS_CA_BUNDLE') or os.environ.get('CURL_CA_BUNDLE')) # Merge all the kwargs. proxies = merge_setting(proxies, self.proxies) stream = merge_setting(stream, self.stream) verify = merge_setting(verify, self.verify) cert = merge_setting(cert, self.cert) return {'verify': verify, 'proxies': proxies, 'stream': stream, 'cert': cert}
[docs] def get_adapter(self, url): """ Returns the appropriate connection adapter for the given URL. :rtype: requests.adapters.BaseAdapter """ for (prefix, adapter) in self.adapters.items(): if url.lower().startswith(prefix): return adapter # Nothing matches :-/ raise InvalidSchema("No connection adapters were found for '%s'" % url)
[docs] def close(self): """Closes all adapters and as such the session""" for v in self.adapters.values(): v.close()
[docs] def mount(self, prefix, adapter): """Registers a connection adapter to a prefix. Adapters are sorted in descending order by prefix length. """ self.adapters[prefix] = adapter keys_to_move = [k for k in self.adapters if len(k) < len(prefix)] for key in keys_to_move: self.adapters[key] = self.adapters.pop(key)
def __getstate__(self): state = dict((attr, getattr(self, attr, None)) for attr in self.__attrs__) return state def __setstate__(self, state): for attr, value in state.items(): setattr(self, attr, value)
def session(): """ Returns a :class:`Session` for context-management. :rtype: Session """ return Session()