Source code for requests.utils


This module provides utility functions that are used within Requests
that are also useful for external consumption.

import codecs
import contextlib
import io
import os
import re
import socket
import struct
import sys
import tempfile
import warnings
import zipfile
from collections import OrderedDict

from urllib3.util import make_headers, parse_url

from . import certs
from .__version__ import __version__

# to_native_string is unused here, but imported here for backwards compatibility
from ._internal_utils import (  # noqa: F401
from .compat import (
from .compat import parse_http_list as _parse_list_header
from .compat import (
from .cookies import cookiejar_from_dict
from .exceptions import (
from .structures import CaseInsensitiveDict

NETRC_FILES = (".netrc", "_netrc")

DEFAULT_CA_BUNDLE_PATH = certs.where()

DEFAULT_PORTS = {"http": 80, "https": 443}

# Ensure that ', ' is used to preserve previous delimiter behavior.
    re.split(r",\s*", make_headers(accept_encoding=True)["accept-encoding"])

if sys.platform == "win32":
    # provide a proxy_bypass version on Windows without DNS lookups

    def proxy_bypass_registry(host):
            import winreg
        except ImportError:
            return False

            internetSettings = winreg.OpenKey(
                r"Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings",
            # ProxyEnable could be REG_SZ or REG_DWORD, normalizing it
            proxyEnable = int(winreg.QueryValueEx(internetSettings, "ProxyEnable")[0])
            # ProxyOverride is almost always a string
            proxyOverride = winreg.QueryValueEx(internetSettings, "ProxyOverride")[0]
        except (OSError, ValueError):
            return False
        if not proxyEnable or not proxyOverride:
            return False

        # make a check value list from the registry entry: replace the
        # '<local>' string by the localhost entry and the corresponding
        # canonical entry.
        proxyOverride = proxyOverride.split(";")
        # filter out empty strings to avoid re.match return true in the following code.
        proxyOverride = filter(None, proxyOverride)
        # now check if we match one of the registry values.
        for test in proxyOverride:
            if test == "<local>":
                if "." not in host:
                    return True
            test = test.replace(".", r"\.")  # mask dots
            test = test.replace("*", r".*")  # change glob sequence
            test = test.replace("?", r".")  # change glob char
            if re.match(test, host, re.I):
                return True
        return False

    def proxy_bypass(host):  # noqa
        """Return True, if the host should be bypassed.

        Checks proxy settings gathered from the environment, if specified,
        or the registry.
        if getproxies_environment():
            return proxy_bypass_environment(host)
            return proxy_bypass_registry(host)

def dict_to_sequence(d):
    """Returns an internal sequence dictionary update."""

    if hasattr(d, "items"):
        d = d.items()

    return d

def super_len(o):
    total_length = None
    current_position = 0

    if isinstance(o, str):
        o = o.encode("utf-8")

    if hasattr(o, "__len__"):
        total_length = len(o)

    elif hasattr(o, "len"):
        total_length = o.len

    elif hasattr(o, "fileno"):
            fileno = o.fileno()
        except (io.UnsupportedOperation, AttributeError):
            # AttributeError is a surprising exception, seeing as how we've just checked
            # that `hasattr(o, 'fileno')`.  It happens for objects obtained via
            # `Tarfile.extractfile()`, per issue 5229.
            total_length = os.fstat(fileno).st_size

            # Having used fstat to determine the file length, we need to
            # confirm that this file was opened up in binary mode.
            if "b" not in o.mode:
                        "Requests has determined the content-length for this "
                        "request using the binary size of the file: however, the "
                        "file has been opened in text mode (i.e. without the 'b' "
                        "flag in the mode). This may lead to an incorrect "
                        "content-length. In Requests 3.0, support will be removed "
                        "for files in text mode."

    if hasattr(o, "tell"):
            current_position = o.tell()
        except OSError:
            # This can happen in some weird situations, such as when the file
            # is actually a special file descriptor like stdin. In this
            # instance, we don't know what the length is, so set it to zero and
            # let requests chunk it instead.
            if total_length is not None:
                current_position = total_length
            if hasattr(o, "seek") and total_length is None:
                # StringIO and BytesIO have seek but no usable fileno
                    # seek to end of file
          , 2)
                    total_length = o.tell()

                    # seek back to current position to support
                    # partially read file-like objects
           or 0)
                except OSError:
                    total_length = 0

    if total_length is None:
        total_length = 0

    return max(0, total_length - current_position)

def get_netrc_auth(url, raise_errors=False):
    """Returns the Requests tuple auth for a given url from netrc."""

    netrc_file = os.environ.get("NETRC")
    if netrc_file is not None:
        netrc_locations = (netrc_file,)
        netrc_locations = (f"~/{f}" for f in NETRC_FILES)

        from netrc import NetrcParseError, netrc

        netrc_path = None

        for f in netrc_locations:
                loc = os.path.expanduser(f)
            except KeyError:
                # os.path.expanduser can fail when $HOME is undefined and
                # getpwuid fails. See &

            if os.path.exists(loc):
                netrc_path = loc

        # Abort early if there isn't one.
        if netrc_path is None:

        ri = urlparse(url)

        # Strip port numbers from netloc. This weird `if...encode`` dance is
        # used for Python 3.2, which doesn't support unicode literals.
        splitstr = b":"
        if isinstance(url, str):
            splitstr = splitstr.decode("ascii")
        host = ri.netloc.split(splitstr)[0]

            _netrc = netrc(netrc_path).authenticators(host)
            if _netrc:
                # Return with login / password
                login_i = 0 if _netrc[0] else 1
                return (_netrc[login_i], _netrc[2])
        except (NetrcParseError, OSError):
            # If there was a parsing error or a permissions issue reading the file,
            # we'll just skip netrc auth unless explicitly asked to raise errors.
            if raise_errors:

    # App Engine hackiness.
    except (ImportError, AttributeError):

def guess_filename(obj):
    """Tries to guess the filename of the given object."""
    name = getattr(obj, "name", None)
    if name and isinstance(name, basestring) and name[0] != "<" and name[-1] != ">":
        return os.path.basename(name)

def extract_zipped_paths(path):
    """Replace nonexistent paths that look like they refer to a member of a zip
    archive with the location of an extracted copy of the target, or else
    just return the provided path unchanged.
    if os.path.exists(path):
        # this is already a valid path, no need to do anything further
        return path

    # find the first valid part of the provided path and treat that as a zip archive
    # assume the rest of the path is the name of a member in the archive
    archive, member = os.path.split(path)
    while archive and not os.path.exists(archive):
        archive, prefix = os.path.split(archive)
        if not prefix:
            # If we don't check for an empty prefix after the split (in other words, archive remains unchanged after the split),
            # we _can_ end up in an infinite loop on a rare corner case affecting a small number of users
        member = "/".join([prefix, member])

    if not zipfile.is_zipfile(archive):
        return path

    zip_file = zipfile.ZipFile(archive)
    if member not in zip_file.namelist():
        return path

    # we have a valid zip archive and a valid member of that archive
    tmp = tempfile.gettempdir()
    extracted_path = os.path.join(tmp, member.split("/")[-1])
    if not os.path.exists(extracted_path):
        # use read + write to avoid the creating nested folders, we only want the file, avoids mkdir racing condition
        with atomic_open(extracted_path) as file_handler:
    return extracted_path

def atomic_open(filename):
    """Write a file to the disk in an atomic fashion"""
    tmp_descriptor, tmp_name = tempfile.mkstemp(dir=os.path.dirname(filename))
        with os.fdopen(tmp_descriptor, "wb") as tmp_handler:
            yield tmp_handler
        os.replace(tmp_name, filename)
    except BaseException:

def from_key_val_list(value):
    """Take an object and test to see if it can be represented as a
    dictionary. Unless it can not be represented as such, return an
    OrderedDict, e.g.,


        >>> from_key_val_list([('key', 'val')])
        OrderedDict([('key', 'val')])
        >>> from_key_val_list('string')
        Traceback (most recent call last):
        ValueError: cannot encode objects that are not 2-tuples
        >>> from_key_val_list({'key': 'val'})
        OrderedDict([('key', 'val')])

    :rtype: OrderedDict
    if value is None:
        return None

    if isinstance(value, (str, bytes, bool, int)):
        raise ValueError("cannot encode objects that are not 2-tuples")

    return OrderedDict(value)

def to_key_val_list(value):
    """Take an object and test to see if it can be represented as a
    dictionary. If it can be, return a list of tuples, e.g.,


        >>> to_key_val_list([('key', 'val')])
        [('key', 'val')]
        >>> to_key_val_list({'key': 'val'})
        [('key', 'val')]
        >>> to_key_val_list('string')
        Traceback (most recent call last):
        ValueError: cannot encode objects that are not 2-tuples

    :rtype: list
    if value is None:
        return None

    if isinstance(value, (str, bytes, bool, int)):
        raise ValueError("cannot encode objects that are not 2-tuples")

    if isinstance(value, Mapping):
        value = value.items()

    return list(value)

# From mitsuhiko/werkzeug (used with permission).
def parse_list_header(value):
    """Parse lists as described by RFC 2068 Section 2.

    In particular, parse comma-separated lists where the elements of
    the list may include quoted-strings.  A quoted-string could
    contain a comma.  A non-quoted string could have quotes in the
    middle.  Quotes are removed automatically after parsing.

    It basically works like :func:`parse_set_header` just that items
    may appear multiple times and case sensitivity is preserved.

    The return value is a standard :class:`list`:

    >>> parse_list_header('token, "quoted value"')
    ['token', 'quoted value']

    To create a header from the :class:`list` again, use the
    :func:`dump_header` function.

    :param value: a string with a list header.
    :return: :class:`list`
    :rtype: list
    result = []
    for item in _parse_list_header(value):
        if item[:1] == item[-1:] == '"':
            item = unquote_header_value(item[1:-1])
    return result

# From mitsuhiko/werkzeug (used with permission).
def parse_dict_header(value):
    """Parse lists of key, value pairs as described by RFC 2068 Section 2 and
    convert them into a python dict:

    >>> d = parse_dict_header('foo="is a fish", bar="as well"')
    >>> type(d) is dict
    >>> sorted(d.items())
    [('bar', 'as well'), ('foo', 'is a fish')]

    If there is no value for a key it will be `None`:

    >>> parse_dict_header('key_without_value')
    {'key_without_value': None}

    To create a header from the :class:`dict` again, use the
    :func:`dump_header` function.

    :param value: a string with a dict header.
    :return: :class:`dict`
    :rtype: dict
    result = {}
    for item in _parse_list_header(value):
        if "=" not in item:
            result[item] = None
        name, value = item.split("=", 1)
        if value[:1] == value[-1:] == '"':
            value = unquote_header_value(value[1:-1])
        result[name] = value
    return result

# From mitsuhiko/werkzeug (used with permission).
def unquote_header_value(value, is_filename=False):
    r"""Unquotes a header value.  (Reversal of :func:`quote_header_value`).
    This does not use the real unquoting but what browsers are actually
    using for quoting.

    :param value: the header value to unquote.
    :rtype: str
    if value and value[0] == value[-1] == '"':
        # this is not the real unquoting, but fixing this so that the
        # RFC is met will result in bugs with internet explorer and
        # probably some other browsers as well.  IE for example is
        # uploading files with "C:\foo\bar.txt" as filename
        value = value[1:-1]

        # if this is a filename and the starting characters look like
        # a UNC path, then just return the value without quotes.  Using the
        # replace sequence below on a UNC path has the effect of turning
        # the leading double slash into a single slash and then
        # _fix_ie_filename() doesn't work correctly.  See #458.
        if not is_filename or value[:2] != "\\\\":
            return value.replace("\\\\", "\\").replace('\\"', '"')
    return value

[docs] def dict_from_cookiejar(cj): """Returns a key/value dictionary from a CookieJar. :param cj: CookieJar object to extract cookies from. :rtype: dict """ cookie_dict = { cookie.value for cookie in cj} return cookie_dict
[docs] def add_dict_to_cookiejar(cj, cookie_dict): """Returns a CookieJar from a key/value dictionary. :param cj: CookieJar to insert cookies into. :param cookie_dict: Dict of key/values to insert into CookieJar. :rtype: CookieJar """ return cookiejar_from_dict(cookie_dict, cj)
[docs] def get_encodings_from_content(content): """Returns encodings from given content string. :param content: bytestring to extract encodings from. """ warnings.warn( ( "In requests 3.0, get_encodings_from_content will be removed. For " "more information, please see the discussion on issue #2266. (This" " warning should only appear once.)" ), DeprecationWarning, ) charset_re = re.compile(r'<meta.*?charset=["\']*(.+?)["\'>]', flags=re.I) pragma_re = re.compile(r'<meta.*?content=["\']*;?charset=(.+?)["\'>]', flags=re.I) xml_re = re.compile(r'^<\?xml.*?encoding=["\']*(.+?)["\'>]') return ( charset_re.findall(content) + pragma_re.findall(content) + xml_re.findall(content) )
def _parse_content_type_header(header): """Returns content type and parameters from given header :param header: string :return: tuple containing content type and dictionary of parameters """ tokens = header.split(";") content_type, params = tokens[0].strip(), tokens[1:] params_dict = {} items_to_strip = "\"' " for param in params: param = param.strip() if param: key, value = param, True index_of_equals = param.find("=") if index_of_equals != -1: key = param[:index_of_equals].strip(items_to_strip) value = param[index_of_equals + 1 :].strip(items_to_strip) params_dict[key.lower()] = value return content_type, params_dict
[docs] def get_encoding_from_headers(headers): """Returns encodings from given HTTP Header Dict. :param headers: dictionary to extract encoding from. :rtype: str """ content_type = headers.get("content-type") if not content_type: return None content_type, params = _parse_content_type_header(content_type) if "charset" in params: return params["charset"].strip("'\"") if "text" in content_type: return "ISO-8859-1" if "application/json" in content_type: # Assume UTF-8 based on RFC 4627: since the charset was unset return "utf-8"
def stream_decode_response_unicode(iterator, r): """Stream decodes an iterator.""" if r.encoding is None: yield from iterator return decoder = codecs.getincrementaldecoder(r.encoding)(errors="replace") for chunk in iterator: rv = decoder.decode(chunk) if rv: yield rv rv = decoder.decode(b"", final=True) if rv: yield rv def iter_slices(string, slice_length): """Iterate over slices of a string.""" pos = 0 if slice_length is None or slice_length <= 0: slice_length = len(string) while pos < len(string): yield string[pos : pos + slice_length] pos += slice_length
[docs] def get_unicode_from_response(r): """Returns the requested content back in unicode. :param r: Response object to get unicode content from. Tried: 1. charset from content-type 2. fall back and replace all unicode characters :rtype: str """ warnings.warn( ( "In requests 3.0, get_unicode_from_response will be removed. For " "more information, please see the discussion on issue #2266. (This" " warning should only appear once.)" ), DeprecationWarning, ) tried_encodings = [] # Try charset from content-type encoding = get_encoding_from_headers(r.headers) if encoding: try: return str(r.content, encoding) except UnicodeError: tried_encodings.append(encoding) # Fall back: try: return str(r.content, encoding, errors="replace") except TypeError: return r.content
# The unreserved URI characters (RFC 3986) UNRESERVED_SET = frozenset( "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz" + "0123456789-._~" ) def unquote_unreserved(uri): """Un-escape any percent-escape sequences in a URI that are unreserved characters. This leaves all reserved, illegal and non-ASCII bytes encoded. :rtype: str """ parts = uri.split("%") for i in range(1, len(parts)): h = parts[i][0:2] if len(h) == 2 and h.isalnum(): try: c = chr(int(h, 16)) except ValueError: raise InvalidURL(f"Invalid percent-escape sequence: '{h}'") if c in UNRESERVED_SET: parts[i] = c + parts[i][2:] else: parts[i] = f"%{parts[i]}" else: parts[i] = f"%{parts[i]}" return "".join(parts) def requote_uri(uri): """Re-quote the given URI. This function passes the given URI through an unquote/quote cycle to ensure that it is fully and consistently quoted. :rtype: str """ safe_with_percent = "!#$%&'()*+,/:;=?@[]~" safe_without_percent = "!#$&'()*+,/:;=?@[]~" try: # Unquote only the unreserved characters # Then quote only illegal characters (do not quote reserved, # unreserved, or '%') return quote(unquote_unreserved(uri), safe=safe_with_percent) except InvalidURL: # We couldn't unquote the given URI, so let's try quoting it, but # there may be unquoted '%'s in the URI. We need to make sure they're # properly quoted so they do not cause issues elsewhere. return quote(uri, safe=safe_without_percent) def address_in_network(ip, net): """This function allows you to check if an IP belongs to a network subnet Example: returns True if ip = and net = returns False if ip = and net = :rtype: bool """ ipaddr = struct.unpack("=L", socket.inet_aton(ip))[0] netaddr, bits = net.split("/") netmask = struct.unpack("=L", socket.inet_aton(dotted_netmask(int(bits))))[0] network = struct.unpack("=L", socket.inet_aton(netaddr))[0] & netmask return (ipaddr & netmask) == (network & netmask) def dotted_netmask(mask): """Converts mask from /xx format to Example: if mask is 24 function returns :rtype: str """ bits = 0xFFFFFFFF ^ (1 << 32 - mask) - 1 return socket.inet_ntoa(struct.pack(">I", bits)) def is_ipv4_address(string_ip): """ :rtype: bool """ try: socket.inet_aton(string_ip) except OSError: return False return True def is_valid_cidr(string_network): """ Very simple check of the cidr format in no_proxy variable. :rtype: bool """ if string_network.count("/") == 1: try: mask = int(string_network.split("/")[1]) except ValueError: return False if mask < 1 or mask > 32: return False try: socket.inet_aton(string_network.split("/")[0]) except OSError: return False else: return False return True @contextlib.contextmanager def set_environ(env_name, value): """Set the environment variable 'env_name' to 'value' Save previous value, yield, and then restore the previous value stored in the environment variable 'env_name'. If 'value' is None, do nothing""" value_changed = value is not None if value_changed: old_value = os.environ.get(env_name) os.environ[env_name] = value try: yield finally: if value_changed: if old_value is None: del os.environ[env_name] else: os.environ[env_name] = old_value def should_bypass_proxies(url, no_proxy): """ Returns whether we should bypass proxies or not. :rtype: bool """ # Prioritize lowercase environment variables over uppercase # to keep a consistent behaviour with other http projects (curl, wget). def get_proxy(key): return os.environ.get(key) or os.environ.get(key.upper()) # First check whether no_proxy is defined. If it is, check that the URL # we're getting isn't in the no_proxy list. no_proxy_arg = no_proxy if no_proxy is None: no_proxy = get_proxy("no_proxy") parsed = urlparse(url) if parsed.hostname is None: # URLs don't always have hostnames, e.g. file:/// urls. return True if no_proxy: # We need to check whether we match here. We need to see if we match # the end of the hostname, both with and without the port. no_proxy = (host for host in no_proxy.replace(" ", "").split(",") if host) if is_ipv4_address(parsed.hostname): for proxy_ip in no_proxy: if is_valid_cidr(proxy_ip): if address_in_network(parsed.hostname, proxy_ip): return True elif parsed.hostname == proxy_ip: # If no_proxy ip was defined in plain IP notation instead of cidr notation & # matches the IP of the index return True else: host_with_port = parsed.hostname if parsed.port: host_with_port += f":{parsed.port}" for host in no_proxy: if parsed.hostname.endswith(host) or host_with_port.endswith(host): # The URL does match something in no_proxy, so we don't want # to apply the proxies on this URL. return True with set_environ("no_proxy", no_proxy_arg): # parsed.hostname can be `None` in cases such as a file URI. try: bypass = proxy_bypass(parsed.hostname) except (TypeError, socket.gaierror): bypass = False if bypass: return True return False def get_environ_proxies(url, no_proxy=None): """ Return a dict of environment proxies. :rtype: dict """ if should_bypass_proxies(url, no_proxy=no_proxy): return {} else: return getproxies() def select_proxy(url, proxies): """Select a proxy for the url, if applicable. :param url: The url being for the request :param proxies: A dictionary of schemes or schemes and hosts to proxy URLs """ proxies = proxies or {} urlparts = urlparse(url) if urlparts.hostname is None: return proxies.get(urlparts.scheme, proxies.get("all")) proxy_keys = [ urlparts.scheme + "://" + urlparts.hostname, urlparts.scheme, "all://" + urlparts.hostname, "all", ] proxy = None for proxy_key in proxy_keys: if proxy_key in proxies: proxy = proxies[proxy_key] break return proxy def resolve_proxies(request, proxies, trust_env=True): """This method takes proxy information from a request and configuration input to resolve a mapping of target proxies. This will consider settings such as NO_PROXY to strip proxy configurations. :param request: Request or PreparedRequest :param proxies: A dictionary of schemes or schemes and hosts to proxy URLs :param trust_env: Boolean declaring whether to trust environment configs :rtype: dict """ proxies = proxies if proxies is not None else {} url = request.url scheme = urlparse(url).scheme no_proxy = proxies.get("no_proxy") new_proxies = proxies.copy() if trust_env and not should_bypass_proxies(url, no_proxy=no_proxy): environ_proxies = get_environ_proxies(url, no_proxy=no_proxy) proxy = environ_proxies.get(scheme, environ_proxies.get("all")) if proxy: new_proxies.setdefault(scheme, proxy) return new_proxies def default_user_agent(name="python-requests"): """ Return a string representing the default user agent. :rtype: str """ return f"{name}/{__version__}" def default_headers(): """ :rtype: requests.structures.CaseInsensitiveDict """ return CaseInsensitiveDict( { "User-Agent": default_user_agent(), "Accept-Encoding": DEFAULT_ACCEPT_ENCODING, "Accept": "*/*", "Connection": "keep-alive", } ) def parse_header_links(value): """Return a list of parsed link headers proxies. i.e. Link: <http:/.../front.jpeg>; rel=front; type="image/jpeg",<http://.../back.jpeg>; rel=back;type="image/jpeg" :rtype: list """ links = [] replace_chars = " '\"" value = value.strip(replace_chars) if not value: return links for val in re.split(", *<", value): try: url, params = val.split(";", 1) except ValueError: url, params = val, "" link = {"url": url.strip("<> '\"")} for param in params.split(";"): try: key, value = param.split("=") except ValueError: break link[key.strip(replace_chars)] = value.strip(replace_chars) links.append(link) return links # Null bytes; no need to recreate these on each call to guess_json_utf _null = "\x00".encode("ascii") # encoding to ASCII for Python 3 _null2 = _null * 2 _null3 = _null * 3 def guess_json_utf(data): """ :rtype: str """ # JSON always starts with two ASCII characters, so detection is as # easy as counting the nulls and from their location and count # determine the encoding. Also detect a BOM, if present. sample = data[:4] if sample in (codecs.BOM_UTF32_LE, codecs.BOM_UTF32_BE): return "utf-32" # BOM included if sample[:3] == codecs.BOM_UTF8: return "utf-8-sig" # BOM included, MS style (discouraged) if sample[:2] in (codecs.BOM_UTF16_LE, codecs.BOM_UTF16_BE): return "utf-16" # BOM included nullcount = sample.count(_null) if nullcount == 0: return "utf-8" if nullcount == 2: if sample[::2] == _null2: # 1st and 3rd are null return "utf-16-be" if sample[1::2] == _null2: # 2nd and 4th are null return "utf-16-le" # Did not detect 2 valid UTF-16 ascii-range characters if nullcount == 3: if sample[:3] == _null3: return "utf-32-be" if sample[1:] == _null3: return "utf-32-le" # Did not detect a valid UTF-32 ascii-range character return None def prepend_scheme_if_needed(url, new_scheme): """Given a URL that may or may not have a scheme, prepend the given scheme. Does not replace a present scheme with the one provided as an argument. :rtype: str """ parsed = parse_url(url) scheme, auth, host, port, path, query, fragment = parsed # A defect in urlparse determines that there isn't a netloc present in some # urls. We previously assumed parsing was overly cautious, and swapped the # netloc and path. Due to a lack of tests on the original defect, this is # maintained with parse_url for backwards compatibility. netloc = parsed.netloc if not netloc: netloc, path = path, netloc if auth: # parse_url doesn't provide the netloc with auth # so we'll add it ourselves. netloc = "@".join([auth, netloc]) if scheme is None: scheme = new_scheme if path is None: path = "" return urlunparse((scheme, netloc, path, "", query, fragment)) def get_auth_from_url(url): """Given a url with authentication components, extract them into a tuple of username,password. :rtype: (str,str) """ parsed = urlparse(url) try: auth = (unquote(parsed.username), unquote(parsed.password)) except (AttributeError, TypeError): auth = ("", "") return auth def check_header_validity(header): """Verifies that header parts don't contain leading whitespace reserved characters, or return characters. :param header: tuple, in the format (name, value). """ name, value = header _validate_header_part(header, name, 0) _validate_header_part(header, value, 1) def _validate_header_part(header, header_part, header_validator_index): if isinstance(header_part, str): validator = _HEADER_VALIDATORS_STR[header_validator_index] elif isinstance(header_part, bytes): validator = _HEADER_VALIDATORS_BYTE[header_validator_index] else: raise InvalidHeader( f"Header part ({header_part!r}) from {header} " f"must be of type str or bytes, not {type(header_part)}" ) if not validator.match(header_part): header_kind = "name" if header_validator_index == 0 else "value" raise InvalidHeader( f"Invalid leading whitespace, reserved character(s), or return " f"character(s) in header {header_kind}: {header_part!r}" ) def urldefragauth(url): """ Given a url remove the fragment and the authentication part. :rtype: str """ scheme, netloc, path, params, query, fragment = urlparse(url) # see func:`prepend_scheme_if_needed` if not netloc: netloc, path = path, netloc netloc = netloc.rsplit("@", 1)[-1] return urlunparse((scheme, netloc, path, params, query, "")) def rewind_body(prepared_request): """Move file pointer back to its recorded starting position so it can be read again on redirect. """ body_seek = getattr(prepared_request.body, "seek", None) if body_seek is not None and isinstance( prepared_request._body_position, integer_types ): try: body_seek(prepared_request._body_position) except OSError: raise UnrewindableBodyError( "An error occurred when rewinding request body for redirect." ) else: raise UnrewindableBodyError("Unable to rewind request body for redirect.")